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神经质的乾隆:多少文人死在其刀下

时间:2013-05-07来源:历史故事网 作者:

  乾隆死了,但中国的文字冤案并未随他而消亡。回首中国文人的生存环境,一言以蔽之:艰难与险恶。

  

血战麻将  QIANLONGZUOWEICHENGYEHUANGDI,SUANSHILISHISHANGZUIXINGFUDEHUANGDI,TASHOUXIADESHENGSHIHENDACHENGDUSHIDEYIYUQIFUYONGZHENG。KEFUZIERRENXIANGBI,ERZIDEWEIMINGYUANZAILAOZIZHISHANG。TONGYANGDEKUZHIJIANGSHAN,FUZIERREN“KU”DEXIAOGUOQUEDABUXIANGTONG。ERZIKUZHENG“KU”DEDIAO,WANDEMIAO,DIWANGZHEITAOYOUXIGUIZESUANSHIBEITABAWANDAOJIALE。TAGANGROUBINGJI,XIANKUANHOUYAN,XIAOGUOHEKOUBEIDOUFEIFUBEIKEPAN。

  

  DANSHUOTADAXINGWENZIYUYISHI,QIGUIMOZHIDA,SHIJIANZHIJIU,SHENJINGCHENGDUZHIJI,DOUYUANCHAOFUZU,BUDANBAQINGCHAOWENTANJIAODEWUYANZHANGQI,ZIJIYELUODEGESHENJINGGUOMINZHENG。YOUSHIYILAI,YIQINGCHAOWENZIYUZUIDUO,QINGCHAOYOUYIQIANLONGYICHAOZUIDUO,LIANGGE“ZUI”ZIGEDAOYICHAO,KEXIANGDANGSHIWENRENDESHENGCUNZHUANGTAIZHIWEI。

  

  JU《QINGDAIWENZIYUJIANBIAO》TONGJI,QIANLONGZAIWEI60NIAN,TUIXIUHOURENGBUSHEDEQIQUAN,YOUGUAN4NIAN,GONGJI64NIAN,ZHIZAODEDAGUIMO、ZHONGGUIMOHEXIAOGUIMODEWENZIANGONGJI130DUOQI,KEYISHUOWUGEYUEJIUYAODUIWENREN“DAOFUSIHOU”YICI。ZHONGYANGZHENGFUYAOWENJIAOZI、LECIBUPI,DIFANGZHENGFUWEIYAOGONGQINGSHANG、KUODAZHANGUO,HENBUDEWADISANCHI。SHUOBAILEYEJIUSHITOUHUANGDIZHISUOHAO,NAOHUANGDIZHISUOYANG,JIEWUGUWENRENDEXIANXUE,RANHONGZIJIDEDINGDAIHUALINGBALE。DANGRAN,QIJIANYEBUFAWENRENSHIZUNPAIHUANGJIAMAPIPAIDAOMATUISHANG,BAXINGMINGPAIDIUDEZHUER。

  

血战麻将  RUJIZHOUXIUCAIANNENGJING,XIEYISHOU“ENRONGYIQIANRI,QUCHIZHIYISHI,ZHIZHUDUOSUYOU,NENGPAINANZHESHEI”。CONGSHIZUOSHUIPINGLAIKAN,CIXIUCAIKENENGGANGGANGCHUDAO,BIGONGZHIQIAN,XINLIXIANGDEHELUOYUBIDUANDECUOWEIDA,HONGGOUKUAN,LEIDETAMANTOUDAHAN,CAIDEYISHOUSIJUXIAOSHI,BENYISHIXIANGDUIQINGCHAOGEGONGSONGDE,BUXIANGJINGBEIQUJIEWEIZHOUMAHUANGDIYOUYOUYOUNAN,WURENFUZUO。ANNENGJINGBEIZHUAJINDALAO,LASHANGDATANG,PIKAIROUZHANHOU,TAHONGZHELIANSHUOLEYIJUSHIZAIHUA:“WOYUANYAOJIELICHENGSONG,WUNAISHUOBUSHANGLAI。”

  

血战麻将  WUDUYOUOU,ZHEMINGXUEZHEQUANZUWANGYECENGGANGUOCILEIDAOMEISHI。TACENGZAI《HUANGYAPIAN》ZHONGDAXUYONGZHENGDEWEIZHIZHENGDEWENTI,CHANMEIZHIYIZHANGXIAN,DANDENGHUANGDIFAXIAN。KEXIDESHI,HUANGDIHAIMEIKANDAO,QUEBEICHOUJIACHOUCHULEWENTI。QUANZUWANGDEWENZHANGNEIYOU“WEIWOTAOZEIQINGQIANKUN”ZHIJU,GUAN“ZEI”ZIYU“QING”ZIZHISHANG,BEICHOUJIAZHIZEWEIDANIBUDAOSHANGZOUQIANLONG,HOUYINYOUCHAOTINGGUANYUANJIELIWEIZHIBIANJIE,CAIDEYIXINGMIAN。ZHEIMAPIPAIDEYOUSHIYIGEBUZHI。

  

  QIANLONGSHUSHINIANLVXINGDAYU,QUEDESHIGANDEZHENSHIBUSHAO,YINERDAOLEWANNIAN,DUI“LAO”、“SI”YILEIDEZIYANJIHUIMOSHEN。RUQIANLONGSISHISINIAN,ZHILIDEYIGENENGRENZHITIANBAO,SHUSHINIANXIUDEYIBENWANNIANLI,WEITAOHAOQIANLONG,TETUORENXIANJIQIANLONGYIBEN。BULIAO,QIANLONGKANHOU,FAXIANGAILIZHIBIANDAOQIANLONGWUSHIQINIAN,YUEPINYUEJUEDEBUDUITOU,ZHEIXIAOZIQIBUSHIZAIBIANZHEFAZIZHOUZHENZAOSI?ZHITIANBAOYINBAJIEHUANGDIERDIAOLENAODAI,YUANQINGZHISHEN。KENENGZHIDAOSISHI,TAFANGTIWUCHU“BANJUNRUBANHU”ZHEIJULAOHUADESHENKENEIHAN:HUANGDILAOERGENQIANDEMAPIJINGKEZHENBUSHINEIMEHAODANGDEA!

  

  KEYISHUO,QINGCHAOQIANQIDEWENRENMENYIZHISHENGHUOZAISHUISHENHUOREZHIZHONG,YESHISHANGJIANGDAOYIGELIUSANYUAN,CIRENSHENJINGYOUMAOBING。MOURI,TAFENGQIYIFAN,DUIZHEYAMENDAHAN:WONAIHANSHIHOUYI,YAOZHONGGUANFUCHI。CIDENGSHUMIANYUYANDALAOCUSHISHUOBUCHUDE,ZHEIGELIUSANYUANHENKENENGSHIWEILUODIXIUCAI,YINLVSHIBUDI,YAYIERFENG。KEXI,QIANLONGZHENGFUBINGMEIYOUYINJINGSHENDEWENTISHEMIANTA,PANTAGEYIDAOZHIXING。

  

血战麻将  DANBIQILINGYIWEIYINZAISHUXINSHANGXIE“KUNZHI”NIANHAOBEILINGCHIDEJIANGXIFENGZI,YIDAOWANGMINGDELIUSANYUANSUANSHIXINGYUNLE……WENZIANYIZHUANGJIEZHEYIZHUANG,SUISHUOBUSHIYIWOFENGDEDAXINGYUNDONG,DANZHEIZHONGLINGXINGBUDUANCHIJIUZHANBIJIZHONGZHANWEILIGENGDA,JIWENRENZAOCHENGDEXINLINGKONGJUGENGSHICHIJIU。WENRENGEGEXINJINGDANZHAN,BEIZHENAODAI“PAGEZI”,YONGZIYONGJUJIEXIAOXINYIYI,QIANHOUGUANZHAO,SHENLEYOUSHEN,XIAOXINDEBUNENGZAIXIAOXINLE,KEYIRANBUNENGBAOZHENGQUANJIALAOXIAODEXINGMING。DANGRANYEYOUBUPASIMAODAXIANXIESHIDE。WENZIYUDAXINGQIJIAN,JIUYOUNENGRENZUOSHIYUE:“QINGFENGBUSHIZI,HEBILUANFANSHU”,DAGAIJIUSHIDUIWAIYIHUANGDIMENYAOWENJIAOZIGONGFUDEYIZHONGJILIFANKANG。

  

  QIANLONGZHEIWEIKEAIDE“SHIQUANLAOREN”YAOWENJIAOZIDEGONGFUYEDEQUELEDE,TABUDANHUOYANJINJING,HAIYOUGUTOULIMIANTIAOCIDEPIHAO。DAOTAZHEIYICHAO,JIHUIDEZIYANBUDUANKUODA,CONGMINGXIANCHUDAOYINHUICHU,CONGZIMIANYIDAOYINSHENYI,CENGCENGTUIQIAO,RANGWENRENMENFANGBUSHENGFANG,YIDANBEITAJIUZHUXIAOWEIBA,TAGENBENBUHUIJINILIUSHENBIANDEYUDI,YISHUNJIANBIANNENGRANGNITIHUIDAOSHAJIAO“HUOCONGTIANJIANG”。

  

  DANGSHENSHANGDEXIAOROUPIANZAIGUIZISHOUDEDAOXIARUTONGXUEHUAFEIWUZHISHI,ZIJIQUEHAIBUZHIDAONALIDEZUILEHUANGDILAOER?NAGEZIYANCHUODAOLETADEHUICHU?ZHIDEDAIZHEZHONGZHONGYIWENHEJIXINGDETENGTONGDAOYINJIANQUXICHUAIXIWENLE!BIRU,HANGZHOUZHUOZHANGLINGZHE《YIMINGSHIJI》,“MING”YU“MING”XIEYIN,BEIRENZHIWEI“YINIANMINGCHAO”,SHANGBAOJIQIANLONG。QIANLONGDIYIKAN,WENTIGENGSHIYANZHONGLEYICENG,LIANZHUOSHIDEJIARENDOUXIEDAIZHEYIQISHENETONGJUEZHI,CHENGTAMEN“SANGJINTIANLIANG,MIEJUETIANLI,ZHENWEIFUZAISUOBURONG”。CONGYAOYAQIECHIDEZHOUMALAIKAN,ZHEINALIHAISHIZHENGFUDUIMINZHONG,JIANZHISHANGSHENGDAOLESICHOUJIAHENDECENGMIANSHANGLE。

  

血战麻将  CONGSHANGKEYIKANCHU,WENRENJIECENGYESHIYIGEQIANRENQIANXINGDEXIAOSHEHUI,SHAZUILIANDOUYOU,YOUPASIDE,YEYOUBUPASIDE;YOUDIUQIWENRENGUQIDERUANDAN,YEYOUGANGZHENGBUADEYINGGUTOU。JINGUANQIANRENQIANXING,DANZUOWEIWENRENHAISHIYOUQIGONGTONGDEXINGGEMAILUODE。BIRUSHUO,WENRENZIGUJIUYOUZHONGZHONGFANDUODESHIYIQINGXU,FAQILAOSAOLAIBUZHIBUJUE。ZAIBIRU,WENRENCANZHENGDEYUWANG,RANGQIZONGSHIWUFAYUANLIZHENGZHICICHANG。ZAI“XUEERYOUZESHI”DEJIAZHIGUANNIANDEYINGXIANGXIA,ZHONGGUOWENRENYAOMERUSHIWEIGUAN,JIANGWENRENHEGUANLIDESHUANGZHONGSHENFENGUIYUYISHEN;YAOMEJIUSHIBENBOYUKAOCHANGJISHINIAN,LUODEYIQIANGYUANQI。WENRENYUGUANCHANGDEZHEIZHONGJINMIYOUWEIMIAODEGUANXI,BIANSHILICHAOLIDAIDEZHENGZHIYUNDONGJIESHINAWENRENKAIDAODEYUANYIN。

  

血战麻将  DANZONGDESHUOLAI,WENGUANYEHAO,LVSHIBUDIDEXIUCAIYEBA,ZONGSHIKONGZHIBUZHUZIJIDESHIYIXINLI:MEIYOUJIDIDEXIANGRUCHAOWEIGUAN,DANGSHANGGUANDEYOUXIANDANGDEGUANTAIXIAO,YUHENANPING,LAOSAOMANFU。SHUOBAILE,CHIDEDOUSHI“KOUSHE”ZHIKUI。QIANLONGWUSHISAN,HUNANLEIYANGDELAOXIUCAIHESHISHENG,DUOCIKEJUDOUMEIJIDI,ZHIDEKAODAIXIECIZHUANGWEISHENG。BUPINGSHIJINGLIDEDUOLE,BIANBAJINGSHOUDEANJIANPINCOUZONGJIECHUYIBU《DUGUOCE》。XIECHENGZHIHOU,LIJISHANGJINGCHENGTOUXIAN,YIDAIQUYUELONGYAN,HUANDEYIGUANBANZHIFENGGUANGFENGGUANG。BUXIANGCISHUSHEJILEPIPINGJUANGUANZHIDUDEWENTI,QUYUEBUCHENG,FANERBEIDINGWEI“WANGYICHAOZHENG”,BEIPANLEZHANLIJUE。

  

血战麻将  AIHAO“KOUSHEZHIHUO”DEWENRENMIANDUISHENJINGZHIHUANGDI,MIANDUITIANTIANCHOUJIHUIPAIMAPIDEGUANLIAO,XIAOXINZUOWENBUFANJIHUISHISHUSHANGCE。KEWENRENYIDANZUOQIWENZHANG,BIANJINRULE“PAODINGJIENIU”DEWUYISHIZHUANGTAI,NALIGUANDEZHUSHOUZHONGZHIBI,XINZHONGLAOSAOBUTUBUKUAI。BIRUQIANLONGSISHISINIANWUYUE,QIANLONGBUZHICONGNANONGDEYIBENWENJI。WENJIDEZUOZHEXIANHUIYIGONGSHENG:SHUHENYOUKENENGSHIZIFEICHUBAN,JIUXIANGXIANZAIDEYEYUZUOZHEPALEJISHINIANGEZI,QIAOLEHENDUONIANDEJIANPAN,TAOYAOBAOCHUSHUYIYANG,SUANSHIWENXUESHENGYADEYICIZONGJIE。CIGONGSHENGYESHIHUAIZHECIZHONGXINLIWEIZIJIDEWENXUESHENGYA“ZONGJIE”LEYIXIA,BINGWEIZHEICI“ZONGJIE”ZIZHUANXUYAN,BADUONIANRENSHIBUSHUNDELAOSAOHUAQUANDOULECHULAI,HUOYAOQIJINONG,ZHICHISHANGTIAN。BENYIWEIFAXINGLIANGBUDA,ANHUIGONGSHENGBINGWEIJIANGXUYANZHISHIFANGZHIYUXIN。SHIBUCOUQIAO,“WENJI”BEIQIANLONGOURAN“CHONGXING”DAOLE,QIJIEGUOKEXIANGERZHI:GONGSHENGBEIZHANSHOUBUSHUO,LIANQIZIHECHULIGAIANBULIDEZHIXIANYEBEIPANYISIHUAN。

  

  ANLISHUO,QIANLONGJIWEISHI,DAQINGJIANGSHANYITONGZHIBAINIANYOUYU,HUANGWEIWENRUTAISHAN,DAMEIBIYAOZAIXIANGFUZUMENNEIBANGENZHISHIFENZIJIAOBAN。RANER,YIGEWENHUASHANGDERUOSHIMINZUCONGMANHUANGZHIDIRUZHUZHONGYUAN,TONGZHIYIGEZHIHUIDEMINZU,QIWENHUAXINLISHIXIANGDANGFUZADE,FUZADEWENHUAXINLIJIERYOUZHUANHUACHENGMINZUDISHI。HUANGDIYIDANDISHINAGEQUNTI,ZHEIGEQUNTIZIRANJIUBUHUIYOUHAOGUOZICHI,BUHUIYOUHAORIZIGUO,ZHISHADE“KANTOUZHIDANGFENGCHUIMAO”。

  

血战麻将  QIANLONGSISHIERNIAN,JIANGXIDEYIGELAOXUEJIUSHENJUSHUZHAIDUONIAN,BUDONGGUANCHANGGUIJU,GENGBUZHIDAOMANQINGHUANGDIWENHUAXINLISHANGDERUANLEISUOZAI。DANGTAKANDAO《KANGXIZIDIAN》ZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI,BIANFANSHANGLEZHISHIFENZIDEJIAOZHENBING,SIXIASHANGAIBUSHUO,HAILINGBIAN《ZIGUAN》YISHU。《KANGXIZIDIAN》NAIQINDINGZHISHU,GANYUDUIGAISHUJINXINGPIPING,ZIRANSHI“ZUIBURONGZHU”。JIANGXIXUNFUHAICHENGZHENZHICISHI,BUGANDAIMAN,LIJISHANGBAOCHAOTING,YOUJIANGLAOXUEJIUGEQUJUREN,TOURUDAYU,GESANCHAWUDITICHULAISHENXUN,TONGSHIYOUBAANZONGSHANGJIAOQIANLONG。QIANLONGZAISHENLIANZONGSHI,FAXIANGAISHUFANLIZHONGJIANGKANGXIYIXIAYIZHITAZIJIDEMIAOHUI、YUMINGGEYIBENZIKAILIE,“SHENKANFAZHI”,LIJICHUANZHIJIANGZUIFANYIYAJINGSHI,ZHAODANILVCHUJUE。TONGSHIXUNFUHAICHENGYESHOUQIANLIAN。TASUISHOUJUYOUGONG,DANQUEYINWEIJISHIFAXIANZHEIYIZHONGDAWENTI,ERBEIQIANLONGYAOYAQIECHIDICHIWEI“TIANLIANGMEIJIN”,GEZHIXIAYU。

  

血战麻将  CONGYIXILIEDEWENZIANSHANGKAN,CHULEHUZHONGZAOANYUZHENGZHIYOUDIANGUANLIANWAI,QIYUDEDUOYINQIANLONGSHENJINGGUOMINZHENGSUOYINFA,SHEJIRENYUANDADUOSHIXIACENGWENREN,YOUWENXUEQINGNIAN,HAIYOULAOBUJIDIDEXIUCAI,SHENZHILIANYIXIEZAOYIZUOGUDEMUZHONGZHIRENYEWEINENGXINGMIAN。KEYISHUO,QIANLONGHUAISHIGANLEBUSHAO,GONGJIYEBUSHAO,ZHENGRENHENSHIYOUYITAOSHOUDUAN,GUANGNAXIACENGRENMINKAIDAO,SHAJIHAIHOU,BAKUANGWANGZIFUDEWENRENMENZHENGDEDAQIBUGANCHU,HAIBUDEBUCONGXINYANLIFURENJIA,HAIBUDEBUNIANQIBILAIZHUANXIERENJIASHIYIDAIMINGJUN、YIDAISHENGXIAN。

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